Are you totally stressed out? How is stress affecting your body?
You’re trying to get the kids off to school, you can’t find your cell phone, and you’re sitting in traffic. Your hypothalamus, a tiny control tower in your brain, decides to send out the order: Send in the stress hormones! These stress hormones are the same ones that trigger your body’s “fight or flight” response. Your heart races, your breath quickens, and your muscles ready for action. This response was designed to protect your body in an emergency by preparing you to react quickly, but when the stress response keeps firing day after day, it could put your health at serious risk. Dr. Sanam Hafeez is a New York City neuro-psychologist who breaks down the effects stress has on the body.
Stress can make you breathe harder. That’s not a problem for most people, but for those with asthma or a lung disease, such as emphysema, getting the oxygen you need to breathe can be difficult. And some studies show that an acute stress, such as the death of a loved one, can actually trigger asthma attacks (when the airway between the nose and the lungs constricts). In addition, stress can cause rapid breathing or hyperventilation that can bring on a panic attack in someone prone to panic attacks. Working with a psychologist to develop relaxation and breathing strategies can help reduce these attacks.
When you’re stressed, you may eat much more or much less than you usually do. If you eat more or different foods or increase your use of alcohol or tobacco, you can experience heartburn or acid reflux. Stress and exhaustion can also increase the severity of heartburn pain.
When you’re stressed, your brain becomes more alert to sensations in your stomach. Your stomach can react with “butterflies”, nausea or pain. You may vomit if the stress is severe enough. And if the stress becomes chronic, you may develop ulcers or severe stomach pain.
Stress can affect digestion and the nutrient absorption in your intestines. It can also affect how quickly food moves through your body. You may find that you have either diarrhea or constipation.
Female Reproductive System
Stress may affect menstruation among adolescent girls and women in several ways. For example, high levels of stress may be associated with absent or irregular menstrual cycles, more painful periods and changes in the length of cycles.
– Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
Stress may make premenstrual symptoms worse or more difficult to cope with, and pre-menses symptoms may be stressful for many women. These symptoms include cramping, fluid retention and bloating, negative mood (feeling irritable and “blue”) and mood swings.
As menopause approaches, hormone levels fluctuate rapidly. These changes are associated with anxiety, mood swings and feelings of distress. Thus, menopause can be a stressor in and of itself. Some of the physical changes associated with menopause, especially hot flashes, can be difficult to cope with. Furthermore, emotional distress may cause the physical symptoms to become worse. For example, women who are more anxious may experience an increased number of hot flashes and/or more severe or intense hot flashes.
– Sexual Desire
Women juggle personal, family, professional, financial and other demands across their life span. Stress, distraction, fatigue, etc. may reduce sexual desire, especially when women are simultaneously caring for young children or other ill family members, coping with chronic medical problems, feeling depressed, experiencing relationship difficulties or abuse and dealing with work problems.
– Fat storage
You can clearly correlate stress to weight gain. Part of that link is due to poor eating habits in the midst of stress, but the stress hormone cortisol may also increase the amount of fat tissue your body hangs onto and enlarge the size of fat cells. Higher levels of cortisol have been linked to more deep-abdominal fat—yes, belly fat. Luckily, exercise can help control stress and keep belly fat under control.
Stress can cause hyper-arousal, a biological state in which people just don’t feel sleepy. While major stressful events can cause temporary insomnia, long-term exposure to chronic stress can also disrupt sleep and contribute to sleep disorders. What to do? Focus on sleep hygiene (making your surroundings conducive to a good night’s rest), and try yoga or another stress-busting activity to reduce stress levels during the day.
“Fight or flight” chemicals, like adrenaline (epinephrine) and cortisol, can cause vascular changes that leave you with a tension headache or migraine, either during the stress or the “let-down” period afterwards. Stress also makes your muscles tense, which can make the pain of a migraine worse. Beyond treating the headache itself, focus on headache-proofing your home, diet and overall lifestyle.
Too much of the stress hormone cortisol can interfere with the brain’s ability to form new memories. During acute stress, the hormone also interferes with neurotransmitters, the chemicals that brain cells use to communicate with each other. That can make it difficult to think straight or retrieve memories. While it’s tough to limit stress in our hectic lives, some experts recommend trying meditation, among other solutions, to reduce the perceived levels of stress.
Blood Sugar Stress is known to raise blood sugar, and if you already have type 2 diabetes, you may find that your blood sugar is higher when you are under stress. One study of obese black women without diabetes found that those who produced more stress-related epinephrine when asked to recall stressful life events had higher fasting glucose and bigger blood sugar spikes than those with lower epinephrine, suggesting stress might raise your risk for getting diabetes, too. Changing what you eat, exercising more, or adjusting medication can help to keep it under control.
About the Doctor:
Dr. Sanam Hafeez PsyD is an NYC-based licensed clinical neuropsychologist, teaching faculty members at the prestigious Columbia University Teacher’s College, and the founder and Clinical Director of Comprehensive Consultation Psychological Services, P.C. a neuropsychological, developmental and educational center in Manhattan and Queens. Dr. Hafeez masterfully applies her years of experience connecting psychological implications to address some of today’s common issues, such as body image, social media addiction, relationships, workplace stress, parenting and psychopathology (bipolar, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, etc.). In addition, Dr. Hafeez works with individuals who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), learning disabilities, attention and memory problems, and abuse. Dr. Hafeez often shares her credible expertise to various news outlets in New York City and frequently appears on CNN and Dr.Oz.
Connect with her via twitter @ComprehendMind or comprehendthemind.com